All examples

On this page you will find the overview of all the consequential LCA examples divided into our five sections with their subheadings.

Why and when?

The functional unit

Describing product properties

Determining market boundaries

Determining product alternatives

Defining the functional unit

Determining reference flows

Determining or dependent co-products?

Only one co-product without alternatives

When all co-products have alternatives

More than one co-product without alternative production routes

Marginal suppliers

When there is no market

A rapidly decreasing market

Increasing or slowly decreasing market

Resource constraints on suppliers

Political constraints

Constrained markets

The special case of electricity

By-products, recycling and waste

Identifying materials for treatment

Recycling activities

Not fully utilised by-product

Speciality productions

Multiple determining products

Multiple determining products from combined production

Multiple determining products from joint production