About this site

Open resources and a collection of examples illustrating how to model consequential product systems in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as it is recommended in the ISO 14040 series.

Consequential modelling is the relevant modelling choice for Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in the vast majority of cases. The consequential approach is a “system modelling approach in which activities in a product system are linked so that activities are included in the product system to the extent that they are expected to change as a consequence of a change in demand for the functional unit” (UNEP 2011). However, many LCAs are currently being produced and published which do not use consequential modelling, often with the argument that the consequential modelling is too difficult or time-consuming. This site aims to alleviate this misconception by providing examples on how consequential LCA (cLCA) is being performed in practice.

This site provides free access to information which is often hidden deep within LCA reports or even left out in brief scientific papers to save space. Step-by-step the site addresses the various data and model assumptions that you will need for cLCA and illustrate each step with examples.

This site is intended as an open resource for students and the novice LCA practitioner. The aim is to populate the site with an increasing number of examples provided by the community.

This site has been initiated and sponsored by 2.-0 LCA consultants but we depend on you to increase the number of good and instructive examples for the benefit of all LCA-practitioners. See how to contribute here.

All examples and text on this site are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike 4.0 license.


UNEP (2011) Global Guidance Principles for life cycle assessment databases – A Basis for Greener Processes and Products, “Shonan Guidance Principles”.