Not fully utilised by‑product
When lack of demand leads to a not fully utilised by-product, this implies that any additional amount produced has to go to final disposal and the waste treatment becomes the marginal application.
Such a by-product may also be called near-waste to indicate that although part of it may have a valuable use, another part is treated as a final waste.
The waste treatment is ascribed to the determining product of the co-producing activity, since the more determining product is produced; the more of the by-product has to be disposed of.
No credit for displacement can be assigned to the determining product, since the lack of full utilisation shows that the displacement options have already been exhausted. Thus, an additional amount of by-product does not displace any other product.
An activity that uses a by-product that is not fully utilized, will be assigned credits for the avoided waste treatment.